Lay paving stones - Instructions for all kinds of stones
- Lay paving stones
- 1. The laying plan
- 2. Create the bedding
- 3. The paving
- 4. The grouting
- edge design
- Various types of stones
- Tips for quick readers
Paving stones are laid outdoors in many different places, for example, as a floor covering for the terrace or for the expansion of the courtyard. The work can be done easily by yourself, so that the costs for a specialist company can be saved. We will show you which work steps you have to perform and what costs you will incur.
Paved areas are suitable for the realization of a terrace, a courtyard or a path. They are easy to care for, as you do not have to mow lawns, unlike a lawn. At the same time you create a neat and attractive outdoor area. Particularly striking are patterns that you put through the stones. There a no limits to imagination. The standard laying methods include the series, the diagonal bandage and the arched pavement. Further variations exist through the coloring of the individual stones.
Lay paving stones
- paving stones
- Fine split mixture or sand mixture
- rubber hammer
- long wooden board
- quartz sand
1. The laying plan
First, you have to make a layout plan. The drawing will provide you with instructions on how to arrange the stones later. It is a necessary help and, in addition, allows you to see whether the pattern meets your expectations before the work begins.1 of 6
Tip: Some cobbler dealers may charge you to transfer hand-made sketches to a laying pattern using computer assistance.
With the plan you must pay attention to whether you use different materials or all building materials have the same characteristics. Often plates are combined with stones, but this leads to different heights. In this case, the ground must have the corresponding heights.
2. Create the bedding
The basis for paving is the substrate. He is partially exposed to high loads and must be laid out soundly. The planned use is crucial for the design of the underground. If it is a garage entrance, then you must consider that the way for the weight of the vehicles plus all possible loadings must be suitable. If, on the other hand, it is a terrace, the load is much lower. Below you will find an overview of how to realize the substrate for the different application possibilities:
Car park entrance:
- Stone height 8 to 10 centimeters
- 5 centimeters of fine chippings (grain size: 2 to 8 millimeters)
- 20 to 25 centimeters of gravel (10 to 45 millimeters grain size)
Terrace / paths in the garden / courtyard without car entrance:
- Stone height 8 to 10 centimeters
- 5 centimeters of fine chippings (grain size: 2 to 8 millimeters)
- 10 to 15 centimeters of gravel (10 to 45 millimeters grain size)
The bedding can consist of fine split or sand (unbound construction). You can also mix washed sand and conventional cement together (bonded construction). The mixing ratio should be 3: 1. Apply the mixture loosely to the surface. The thickness must be between 3 and 8 centimeters. Now smooth the resulting surface and make sure that there are no interfering elements in the structure. It is important that a straight surface is created. Use a thick board to smooth the surface and pay attention to the flat design.
What is the difference between the unbound and the bound construction ">
2. The bonded construction works with a plaster bed of cement mortar. There is little stretching, but it is not completely prevented. If it comes to a higher force than the material-specific elongation at break allows, then cracks can occur and individual stones can peel off.
Tip: Reaction resin grout produces an open-pored structure. It reduces the risk of frost damage. At the same time you prevent cracks.
3. The paving
Start by paving on the house facade or another straight edge. This will give you stability and security regarding the formation of a straight line. Smaller areas can be edited in one piece. For larger areas you can subdivide and, for example, pave areas of 2m x 2m. To do this, straighten the cords at right angles so that you can orient yourself along the lines and not get into the wrong position.
- Install expansion joints on the sides. The joints should have a width of 4 millimeters. If there are other installations in the yard or terrace, expansion joints must also be planned here.
- Lay the first row along the wall or along the guideline. Check with the spirit level for proper alignment.
- The joints must remain free of sand at this time.
- Between the paving stones remains a joint distance of 3 to 5 millimeters.
- If you have laid a few rows, fill in the joints with crushed sand.
- Check in between times with the spirit level, if all stones are laid correctly. Small irregularities at the beginning continue and worsen.
- Work best in pairs to pave the terrace quickly and accurately.
How can I generate patterns when laying ">
There are two different ways to create a pattern when laying. On the one hand, you can use different stone types or stone sizes. However, this approach is associated with good planning and increased effort. It is easier to use different stone colors. Lay the stones in straight lines and vary the color of the stones. If you want to create simple patterns, then you can separate individual areas. Make a drawing for a pattern, which later has the original size of 1 mx 1 m. Reposition the pattern for the corresponding areas and add several similar patterns side by side.
4. The grouting
After laying the patch, make sure you have a flat and level surface. Use a rubber shaker to clean the pavement. Many other machines would damage the stones. Now you can use natural stone grains or washed coarse sand to leach the surface. If you already put the grains in the joints before shaking, then they would move back to the surface. The vibrating plate would break up the grains into fine particles that damage the stones.
The joints between the stones must be closed by slurrying. It is best to use quartz sand as this is particularly easy to get into the joints. For an area of 100 square meters you will need around 12 bags of sand on average. Sweep the sand into the joints with a broom. Now you have to wet the sand. You can use a garden hose or a cash register to moisten it. You can turn off the remaining sand on the surface.
1. Attachment by curbs
2. Fresh concrete support and leakage of the surface
- Position the support approximately 2 centimeters below the top of the pavement
- Add the lawn or mulch to the fresh concrete column
In which direction should I align the terrace?
Choosing the right place for the terrace is very important. If you have freedom of design on this point, you benefit from careful planning after completion. The alignment is responsible among other things for the use of the warm sun rays and for the creation of shadows. Orient the terrace to the east, then in the morning you can enjoy the rising sun. In the afternoon, the terrace is in the shade, which is especially beneficial on hot summer days. The disadvantage is the fact that even in the evening shade is, where possibly for the cozy barbecue some sunshine would be desired. If the terrace faces west, then in the evening you can watch the setting sun and spend the late afternoon in the sunshine.
How can I save drainage fees?
If you pay attention to a few points during construction, you can save drainage fees:
1st point: There must be no gradient to public areas.
2nd point: Within the areas no sewer connection or sewer drain may be present.
3rd point: There must be no other introduction to the public network.
Note, however, that the exact rules are dependent on regional laws and regulations and must be clarified with the relevant authorities.
What costs are incurred by paving?
The exact cost varies greatly and depends above all on the prices of the selected stones. Below is a sample calculation for paving a patio.
The terrace has a size of 50 m²:
- Terrace stones: 30 euros per square meter, so in this case 50 x 30 euros = 1, 500 euros
- Split for the underground: 3 euros per square meter, so 50 x 3 euros = 150 euros
- Terrace surround (Borde / 15 euros each): 180 euros
- Sand: 7 euros per bag, resulting in costs of 6 x 7 euros = 42 euros
Thus, for an area of 50 square meters, costs amount to 1, 872 euros .
Various types of stones
What are the special features of the different stone types?
Cobblestones: Cobblestone seems to be particularly relaxed and is considered environmentally friendly. It is easy to grow and optimizes rainfall. Most stones are irregular shaped, so you need to plan a wide joint space. In addition, it is crucial to pay attention to a certain uniformity and to select the appropriate stones for each location. Depending on the condition, wet cobblestones can be very slippery. It is a repair-friendly surface, because individual stones can be replaced relatively easily.
Natural stone paving: Natural stone paving is created with a wide joint spacing. They are advantageous in terms of rainfall infiltration. However, roots can penetrate and it is a breathable surface. This increases the weed growth and the maintenance effort is greater.
Granite paving: Granite paving stones are available in different sizes and colors. They produce a particularly natural appearance.
Concrete paving: Concrete block paving is often cheaper than natural stone. They also have a uniform shape, which leads to increased symmetry or regularity. Scattered concrete blocks are permeable to water, so that the rain can seep into the ground. However, the compressive strength is lower than with conventional concrete paving stones.
Should I lay the paving stones myself or hire a specialist company "> Tips for quick readers
- bound construction or unbound construction
- Subsurface of split or cement mixture
- Laying the paving stones for two
- start at the house wall
- Attach straightening cords at right angles
- always check with spirit level
- Leave joints
- fill with sand after a few rows of joints
- Slurry the joints
- Align the terrace with the sun