Carefully cultivate and cut the ornamental apple tree and shrub
- Pouring and fertilizing
- To cut
- Diseases and pests
- Beautiful varieties
- Cultivate the ornamental apple as bonsai
- Abstract - care of the ornamental apple
The ornamental apple is an impressive ornamental tree and grows as a large shrub or small tree. He reaches heights of growth between 2.50 m and 6 m and is an eye-catcher in the garden at any time of year, be it because of its enchanting and sweet-smelling blossom in spring or because of its decorative fruits. Accordingly, it is called by hobby gardeners as "four-season grove". Only a few woody plants have a similar decorative effect and versatility as the ornamental apple with its over one hundred varieties.
The growth forms of the numerous varieties are very different, ranging from low, broad-bred shrubs to slender upright growing small trees, some with overhanging branches in old age. In most cases, the ornamental apple leaves deciduous, so that a fall coloration usually hardly takes place at all.
Before planting it is important to improve the permeability, for example heavy clay soils, by adding gravel or sand. Sandy soils are generally well-suited, but have the disadvantage that they can not store nutrients or water for long enough. Otherwise, you can enrich the soil before planting with peat, potting soil or compost to promote a healthy and vigorous growth.
In the trade root-bare plants and potted cultures are offered. Potted crops have the distinct advantage that they are usually much stronger and can be planted all year round, with the exception of winter. Root and bale goods can be planted from October to April, but only in frost-free weather.
Before planting, it is advisable to thoroughly water the root ball for about 10 minutes. Place the plant in a jar of water until no more air bubbles are visible or rise so that the root ball can absorb water well.
In the meantime, you lift out the planting hole. This should be twice as deep and deep as the root ball. The soil at the bottom of the plant hole should be well loosened, so that no waterlogging can form. Optionally, you can also give a drainage layer of gravel or gravel as the lowest layer in the planting hole.
Now the plant is used, about 3 to 5 cm deeper, than it has been in the pot. Then fill in with the excavation and press well. A pouring edge around the plant may facilitate pouring. Finally, the whole thing still thoroughly water or sew. In the first weeks after planting should be watered regularly depending on the weather.
The ornamental apple prefers wind-protected, sunny and clear to partially shaded locations. Bouncy sun, especially in summer should be avoided. This could cause the flowers to fade very quickly and shorten the flowering time significantly.
In some cases, the location requirements also depend on the respective variety or its growth form. While shrubby varieties need particularly good soil, half and high strains are relatively undemanding. This is because shrubby species are grafted on a medium-thick pad and strains on seedlings.
The soil should be nutrient-rich, permeable, fresh, not too dry, not too heavy, and acidic to alkaline with a pH between 5.0 and 7.5. A lack of nutrients can indicate brown leaves, which eventually fall off.
Pouring and fertilizing
- The water requirement of the ornamental apple is relatively high.
- Waterlogging should be avoided at all costs.
- Before every new watering, the top layer of soil should always dry off first.
- Then pour again penetrating!
- For the ornamental apple, the right ratio of phosphorus and nitrogen is important.
- This can be compensated if necessary with a suitable fertilizer.
The ornamental apple is very cut tolerant, so it can be cut easily. It can be cut back both in summer and in autumn or winter.
Cut in the summer
In summer, for example, the ornamental apple can be cut to form a beautiful stem. Such a cut is referred to as trimming and refers to the removal of the lower branches of the crown. It should be the
lowest side branches first cut off. The so-called branch collar should be preserved when cutting as possible. As a branch collar, the attachment point between branch and trunk is called.
For thicker branches, it is advisable to first saw about 10 cm from the trunk, saw a notch below the branch and saw off from above. This is done to prevent breakage of the branch during sawing. Thereafter, the remaining stump is cut off with an appropriate distance from the trunk. Finally, treat the cuts with a suitable wound closure agent.
Cut in autumn or winter
In autumn or winter you should thinning out the crown of the ornamental apple. This is especially recommended when there are dead branches or twigs in the crown or the crown is too dense, which favors under certain circumstances, a fungal infection.
You should remove some thicker branches, evenly over the entire crown. Also in this section, attention should be paid to the so-called branch collar and possibly the thicker branches again only from below, sawn a few centimeters and then sawn off from above. Finally, the cuts are treated again accordingly.
Cut ornamental apple bush
For an ornamental shrub to develop a crown, it must first be cut accordingly. For this, steeply growing up and very close shoots are removed.
The earliest varieties already bloom from the beginning of May, the latest between late May and early June. The flowering time is 10-14 days, however, relatively short. There are white flowering and pink to burgundy flowering varieties, the buds are always darker colored than the open flowers, so they appear two-colored. The red-flowered varieties form in the spring purple leaves, which are partly preserved and partly in the summer green.
In autumn, this woodland adorns numerous colorful fruits, which are sometimes no larger than cherries depending on the variety. These small fruits shine in autumn in bright yellow, orange or red. Depending on the weather, they stay on the tree until well into the winter, thus ensuring a wonderful splash of color in the winter.
The white-flowering varieties are particularly abundant. The fruits of the ornamental apple are not only a splendid ornament, they are also edible. The taste is in comparison to the traditional garden apple usually much bitter, sometimes even extremely sour.
Diseases and pests
Most varieties of ornamental apple are relatively resistant, despite all, it is not uncommon to infest with powdery mildew or scab infestation. In addition, both nutrient and water deficiencies are poorly tolerated. Both could lead to a browning of the leaves and ultimately to leaf loss. To avoid such a shortage, one should not plant too many ornamental apple trees in direct neighborhood to each other.
An infestation with scab is to recognize during the flowering time at first dark green and later gray brown, roundish and transparent spots on the leaves. As they progress, they grow larger, become more irregular and are covered with a mushroom turf.
A scab infestation can spread relatively quickly. Later, the infected leaves dry and eventually fall off. In some cases, shoots can be infested, which then die off. In the case of a particularly strong infestation, the flower turns out to be significantly lower in the following year. Scab occurs more often in humid weather and then winters on the autumn leaves. Therefore, it is important to always thoroughly remove and dispose of waste lying on the floor in the household waste.
If the fall leaves are not removed, it usually comes from April to the end of June on the young leaves to a repeated infection. Moist weather favors the development of scab. The infection progresses the faster the longer the wetness remains on the leaves and the warmer it is. The first damage can already be seen in fruits and leaves in May.
The control with pesticides is relatively difficult, since due to the size of the woody plants hardly all leaves can be achieved. It is better to prevent infestation, for example, by paying attention to resistant varieties when buying. In addition, the ornamental apple can be made more resistant through optimal nutrient supply, as a fertile soil strengthens the defenses of these trees. Another preventative measure is the regular cut of the crown. This should not be too dense, so that the foliage dries quickly again.
The powdery mildew on the ornamental apple can be recognized by a white mushroom coating on the leaves. The leaf tips dry up and curl up. To combat enough already usually a corresponding pruning. A control with pesticides in a strong infestation is not recommended as the scab infestation due to the size of woodland and therefore promising little success. In these cases, it may be necessary to think about replanting.
The variety 'Wintergold' is a very robust ornamental apple with overhanging branches in old age. The fruits are 2-3 cm tall and golden yellow with a sweet-sour taste. The pink buds or pale pink to white flowers appear from May to June.
This richly flowering variety captivates with dark purple-pink flower buds and later with light purple-pink flowers, which later turn white. The orange to red fruits are about 2 cm tall. It is relatively resistant to scab infestation.
Malus, Royalty '
This variety produces a variety of black-red buds and later simple kaminrot flowers and dark red fruits. The leaves shoot is bright red and then turns into a brown-red autumn color.
Cultivate the ornamental apple as bonsai
The ornamental apple is cultivated as open-land bonsai. He can stand outdoors all year round. Frost-hard bonsai trees prefer full sun and a humid and cool climate. Rain, sun and wind are important for these plants, because they make them more resistant.
Pouring and fertilizing
The water requirement is average. The substrate should always be moist, especially when the ornamental apple starts to produce fruit. However, it should always be poured only when the topmost layer of earth has dried. Waterlogging is also to be avoided when cultivating as bonsai, as well as the overflowing of the leaves, which can lead to mold infestation.
Fertilization is regular from spring to autumn. During flowering or immediately after repotting is not fertilized. Suitable examples are special bonsai liquid fertilizers and organic spreading fertilizers.
Repotting and cutting
- Repotting is done about every two years in the spring.
- At the same time repotting the roots when repotting
- This is important for a balance between root and crown.
- Substrate should be replaced by two-thirds with fresh.
- For typical growth form of a bonsai branches, twigs, shoots and roots cut back.
- Regular cut from May to September approx. Every 6-8 weeks.
Wired and overwintering
Through the so-called wire you can directly influence the shape of the tree. For this purpose, trunk, branches or branches, depending on what should be shaped, with an appropriate aluminum wire evenly, spirally wound from bottom to top. With the onset of thickness growth, in mid-May, the wire should be removed to avoid traces of wire.
Wintering is ideally carried out at temperatures between 0 and 10 degrees, for example in a greenhouse. It can also be planted without a planter in a partially shaded spot in the garden and overwinter there.
Abstract - care of the ornamental apple
- Potted cultures are better than bare root plants and grow better.
- Planting year-round except during frost.
- Location should be sunny to partially shaded and sheltered from the wind.
- Soil should be permeable, nutrient-rich, uniformly moist and acidic to alkaline.
- Water regularly as soon as the top layer of soil has dried.
- Balanced ratio of nitrogen and phosphorus important.
- If necessary, balance with appropriate fertilizer.
- Possible in summer.
- Make up the crown in autumn / september.
- Treat cuts with wound closure.
- Scab and mildew cases possible.
- Remove fallen leaves from the ground.
- Pruning is often sufficient with mildew.
- When buying pay attention to resistant varieties.